Videos and Presentations


Visual Motion Estimation and Tracking

During his Ph.D., Prof. Ralph Etienne-Cummings also studied visual motion estimation and implementation in VLSI. In 1992, he published the first paper on pulse-based, inter-pixel time of travel motion chip,1 which was based on the fly's motion detection (other approaches of the time used delayed cross-correlation). Later, this approach was expanded and integrated into silicon retinas.2 Visual motion estimation on the focal plane continues to be one of our areas of research.3 With Eglin Air Force Base and JHU/APL, we are also looking into using these chips to guide micro unmanned aerial vehicles.


  1. ["Real Time 2-D Analog Motion Detector VLSI Circuit," Proc. IJCNN '92, Vol. IV, pp. 426-431, 1992]
  2. ["A Focal Plane Visual Motion Measurement Sensor," IEEE Trans. Circuits and System I, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 55-66, 1997; "Hardware Implementation of a Visual Motion Pixel using Oriented Spatiotemporal Neural Filters," IEEE Trans. Circuits and System II, Vol. 46, No. 9, pp. 1121-1136, 1999; "A Foveated Silicon Retina for Two-Dimensional Tracking," IEEE Trans. Circuits and System II, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 504-527, June 2000; "A Foveated Tracking Chip," ISSCC '97 Digest of Technical Papers, Vol. 40, pp. 38-39, Feb. 1997; "A New Temporal Domain Optical Flow Measurement Technique for Focal Plane VLSI Implementation," CAMP 93, M. Bayoumi, L. Davis and K. Valavanis (Eds.), pp. 241-251, 1993]
  3. ["A Simplified Normal Optical Flow CMOS Camera," IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems-I, Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 1223-1234, June 2006; "Normal Optical Flow CMOS APS Imager," IEE Electronics Letters, Vol. 41, No. 13, pp. 732-733, June 2005; "Optical Flow Approximation of Sub-Pixel Accurate Block Matching for Video Coding" IEEE ICASSP 2007, Honolulu, HW, April 2007]